Know all about Oud | Best Oud Perfumes
Welcome to the wonderful world of perfumes, where the scent is potent, it could probably knock out a herd of elephants. But fear not, my fragrance-loving friends, oud perfumes are not just any ordinary scents- they are superheroes of the perfume world, with the power to highlight a person in a crowd. So, hold onto your noses and get ready to embark on a fragrant journey.
What is oud?
Oud, also known as Oudh, agarwood or aloeswood, is a resinous, fragrant wood that comes from the Aquilaria tree, a large evergreen native to Southeast Asia. When the tree is infected by a specific type of mold, it produces a resin that results in the formation of oud within the wood. The wood is then harvested and used to create a variety of fragrances, incense, and essential oils.
The resin that produces oud is formed as a natural defense mechanism of the tree against the mold infection. The mold triggers a reaction within the tree that results in the production of resin, which ultimately leads to the formation of the aromatic oud. The longer the tree is infected, the more resinous the wood becomes, resulting in a higher concentration of oud within the wood.
Oud has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicines, religious ceremonies, and perfumery. It is highly prized for its distinct, complex, and long-lasting fragrance, which is often described as woody, balsamic, and musky, with notes of spice, fruit, and flowers. Because of its rarity and complexity, oud is also one of the most expensive and luxurious fragrance ingredients in the world.
Why is oud so special?
Oud is considered special for several reasons:
- 1. Rarity: Oud is rare and difficult to obtain because it can only be produced by the Aquilaria tree when it becomes infected with a specific type of mold. Not all Aquilaria trees produce oud, and the process of producing it is unpredictable and can take decades. As a result, oud is one of the most expensive natural raw materials used in perfumery.
- Complexity: Oud has a complex and unique aroma that is difficult to replicate with other ingredients. The scent of oud can vary depending on the type of tree, the age of the wood, and the geographical location of the tree. Oud oil is a complex mixture of various aromatic compounds, which gives it a rich and multidimensional fragrance.
- Longevity: Oud is known for its long-lasting scent, which can persist for days or even weeks on the skin or clothes. This makes it an ideal ingredient for perfumes and fragrances, as it can provide a base note that lingers long after the top and middle notes have dissipated.
- Cultural significance: Oud has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine and religious ceremonies, particularly in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. It is also associated with luxury and status, as it was historically only affordable to the wealthy and elite.
Sourcing of Oud Perfumes
The sourcing of oud has been a controversial issue in recent years due to the overexploitation of the Aquilaria tree, which is the source of oud.
To address these concerns, many perfume and fragrance companies have developed sustainable sourcing practices for oud. One approach is to work with communities and organizations that promote responsible harvesting and cultivation of Aquilaria trees. For example, some companies partner with small farmers who grow Aquilaria trees and extract oud oil using sustainable and environmentally friendly methods.
Another approach is to use synthetic oud, which is made in a lab using chemical compounds that mimic the aroma of natural oud. Synthetic oud provides a more sustainable and cost-effective alternative to natural oud, without sacrificing the complexity and longevity of the fragrance.
Ultimately, the responsible sourcing of oud is important to ensure the protection of the Aquilaria tree and its ecosystem, as well as to promote ethical and sustainable practices in the fragrance industry.
Oud perfume & its role in the global fragrance industry
Oud perfume has become increasingly popular in the global fragrance industry in recent years, due to its unique and complex aroma, as well as its association with luxury and exclusivity. Oud is often used as a base note in perfumes, providing a long-lasting and rich scent that complements other ingredients.
The popularity of oud has led to an increase in the demand for natural oud oil, which is one of the most expensive raw materials used in perfumery. As a result, many fragrance companies have developed synthetic versions of oud, which are more cost-effective and sustainable, while still capturing the essence of the natural ingredient.
The use of oud in perfumery has also contributed to the growing trend of niche and artisanal fragrances, which offer a unique and personalized experience for consumers. Many niche fragrance houses specialize in creating fragrances that feature oud as a prominent note, often combining it with other rare and exotic ingredients to create a distinctive and sophisticated scent.
Overall, oud has become an important ingredient in the global fragrance industry, contributing to the development of new and innovative fragrances, as well as driving the growth of the niche and artisanal fragrance market. Its popularity is expected to continue as consumers seek out unique and high-quality fragrances that offer a sense of luxury and exclusivity.
Types of ouds
There are several types of ouds, each with their unique characteristics, fragrance profiles, and origins. Here are some of the most common types of ouds:
- Indian oud: Also known as Hindi oud, it is derived from the agarwood trees that grow in India. Indian oud is known for its deep, musky aroma, with hints of earthiness and spice.
- Cambodian oud: Cambodian oud, also called Khmer oud, is obtained from the agarwood trees found in Cambodia. It has a sweet and floral fragrance profile, with notes of honey and fruit.
- Malaysian oud: Malaysian oud, also known as Malaccan oud, is derived from the agarwood trees found in Malaysia. It has a rich, smoky scent with a woody and earthy undertone.
- Thai oud: Thai oud, also called Siamese oud, is obtained from the agarwood trees found in Thailand. It has a warm, sweet, and spicy fragrance profile, with hints of cinnamon and clove.
- Vietnamese oud: Vietnamese oud is derived from the agarwood trees found in Vietnam. It has a deep, earthy aroma, with notes of leather and tobacco.
- Assam oud: Assam oud is obtained from the agarwood trees found in the Assam region of India. It has a complex fragrance profile, with hints of musk, fruit, and spices.
- Borneo oud: Borneo oud is derived from the agarwood trees found in Borneo. It has a rich, woody scent, with notes of honey and leather.
- Chinese oud: Chinese oud is obtained from the agarwood trees found in China. It has a sweet, floral fragrance profile, with hints of fruit and spices.
In conclusion, the different types of ouds have distinct fragrance profiles and are highly valued in the world of perfumery. The choice of oud used in a fragrance can significantly impact its overall scent and appeal to consumers.
Characteristics of oud perfume
Here are some of the key characteristics of oud perfume:
- Earthy and Woody: Oud has a distinct woody and earthy scent that is warm and rich. It is often described as smoky, resinous, and slightly sweet.
- Long-lasting: Oud perfume is known for its longevity, as the fragrance can linger on the skin for hours, even days, after it is applied.
- Complex: Oud perfume is a complex fragrance that can vary depending on the origin and quality of the agarwood used in its production. It can have various notes of leather, tobacco, spices, and even fruitiness.
- Expensive: Oud perfume is often considered a luxury item, and it can be quite expensive due to the rarity and high demand for agarwood.
- Unisex: Oud perfume is a popular unisex fragrance, as it has a unique and versatile scent that can be worn by both men and women.
- Cultural significance: Oud perfume has a long history of use in Middle Eastern cultures, where it is often associated with royalty, luxury, and sophistication.
Overall, oud perfume is a distinctive and luxurious fragrance that has gained popularity around the world for its unique scent and cultural significance.
What does oud smell like?
Oud is a captivating scent that is both earthy and sweet, with a smoky and slightly animalic undertone. It’s a fragrance that evokes images of exotic lands and ancient traditions, and has the power to transport the senses to a different time & place.
Whether you love the boldness of oud or find its aroma overwhelming, one thing is certain- it’s a scent that leaves a lasting impression.
Some people describe the scent of oud perfume as having notes of leather, tobacco, and spices such as saffron or cardamom. It may also have a slightly floral or fruity quality, which can help to balance out the heavier woody and smoky notes.
The fragrance profile of oud perfume can vary depending on the quality of the oud used and the other ingredients used in the fragrance composition. However, in general, oud perfume has a rich and complex scent profile that is characterized by its woody, smoky, and earthy notes.
Oud perfume typically has top notes that are fresh and citrusy, such as bergamot or lemon, which help to balance out the heavier woody and smoky notes. The heart of the fragrance is typically dominated by the oud itself, which can have various layers of notes including leather, tobacco, and spices such as cardamom or saffron. The base of the fragrance is usually warm and musky, with notes of amber, musk, and vanilla.
Oud perfume has a unique and complex scent that is difficult to describe in words. It is often described as woody, smoky, and earthy, with a slightly sweet and resinous quality. The fragrance is derived from the resinous wood of the agarwood tree, which has a distinct aroma that is highly prized in many cultures.
The scent of oud perfume can vary depending on the quality of the oud used and the other ingredients used in the fragrance composition. However, in general, the fragrance has a warm and rich aroma that is both sophisticated and exotic.
The science of oud perfume: Chemical compounds & Aroma Profile
The scent of oud perfume is the result of a complex mixture of chemical compounds that are present in the resinous wood of the agarwood tree. The chemical composition of oud can vary depending on the species of agarwood, the age of the tree, and the processing methods used to extract the resin.
Here are some of the key chemical compounds that contribute to the aroma profile of oud perfume:
- Sesquiterpenoids: These are a class of organic compounds that are responsible for the woody and earthy aroma of oud perfume. They include compounds such as α- and β-agarofuran, iso-epoxy-α-agarofuran, and valencene.
- Phenylpropanoids: These are another class of organic compounds that contribute to the aroma of oud perfume. They include compounds such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and safrole, which have spicy and floral notes.
- Diterpenoids: These are a class of organic compounds that contribute to the resinous and smoky aroma of oud perfume. They include compounds such as abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid.
- Lactones: These are organic compounds that contribute to the sweet and creamy aroma of oud perfume. They include compounds such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone.
The aroma profile of oud perfume is highly complex and can vary depending on the quality and composition of the oud used in the fragrance. However, in general, oud perfume has a warm and rich aroma that is characterized by its woody, smoky, and earthy notes.
It may also have spicy, floral, and sweet notes that help to balance out the heavier oud aroma. Overall, the unique scent of oud perfume is a result of the complex interaction of many different chemical compounds.
Longevity of oud perfume
The longevity of oud perfume can vary depending on the quality of the perfume, the concentration of the oud in the perfume, and individual body chemistry.
Generally, oud perfumes tend to have a long-lasting scent due to the unique properties of the oud oil. Oud oil is a highly concentrated, resinous substance that is derived from the agarwood tree. Its fragrance is complex and intense, with a rich, woody aroma that can last for hours.
The concentration of oud oil in a perfume can also affect its longevity. Perfumes with a higher concentration of oud oil, such as pure oud oils or attars, tend to have a longer-lasting scent than perfumes with a lower concentration of oud.
Individual body chemistry can also impact the longevity of a perfume. Factors such as skin type, diet, and activity level can all affect how long a perfume lasts on an individual.
In general, oud perfumes are known for their longevity and can last anywhere from 6-12 hours or more on the skin. However, the exact longevity of a particular oud perfume can vary depending on the factors mentioned above.
Natural oud vs Synthetic Oud
As the natural Oudh is so rare and its sourcing is ever more challenging, most of the modern perfumers are using lab made alternatives for this.
Natural oud is derived from the agarwood tree, which is found in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and parts of the Middle East. The tree produces oud as a natural defense mechanism when it is infected with a specific type of fungus. The oud produced in this way is highly prized for its complex, rich, and deep aroma.
Chemical oud, on the other hand, is a synthetic version of oud that is produced in a laboratory. It is made by combining various chemicals to replicate the scent of natural oud. Chemical oud can be used in perfumes and other fragrances as a cheaper alternative to natural oud.
While natural oud is considered to be the highest quality and most prized form of oud, it is also extremely expensive and rare. Chemical oud, on the other hand, is more widely available and less expensive.
In terms of the scent, natural oud is generally considered to be more complex, deep, and nuanced than chemical oud. It has a rich and earthy aroma that can be described as woody, smoky, and musky. Chemical oud, while it can mimic the scent of natural oud to some extent, often lacks the depth and complexity of the natural version.
Thus, where natural oud is highly prized and considered the best quality, chemical oud can be a good alternative for those who are unable to afford or obtain natural oud, or who prefer a more affordable and widely available option.
What is synthetic oud & how it is made
Synthetic oud is a laboratory-made version of the natural oud fragrance. It is produced by combining various chemicals that replicate the scent of natural oud.
The process of making synthetic oud involves isolating and analyzing the chemical compounds found in natural oud, and then synthesizing those compounds in the laboratory. Chemists can use a variety of methods to synthesize the compounds, such as through chemical reactions, fermentation, or extraction from natural sources.
One common method used to create synthetic oud is to start with a basic building block, such as phenol or cresol, and then modify it through a series of chemical reactions to produce the desired aroma profile. The resulting fragrance may be a single compound or a mixture of compounds, depending on the intended use.
Chemical analysis of natural oud has shown that it contains hundreds of different compounds, many of which are highly complex and difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. As a result, creating a truly authentic synthetic oud can be a challenging task, and many synthetic ouds on the market today may not perfectly replicate the scent of natural oud.
However, synthetic oud has become a popular and widely used ingredient in the fragrance industry due to its affordability, consistency, and availability. It can be found in a wide range of perfumes, colognes, and other fragrances, and can be used as a substitute for natural oud in many cases.
The art of creating oud perfume: From harvesting to distillation
Oud, also known as agarwood, is a highly prized fragrance ingredient used in perfumery. Oud oil is derived from the resinous heartwood of the agarwood tree, which is mainly found in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East. The process of creating oud perfume involves several steps, including harvesting, extraction, and distillation.
- Harvesting-Agarwood trees do not produce oud oil naturally. Instead, the trees produce the resinous heartwood as a result of a fungal infection. To harvest the oud, the infected parts of the tree are cut and left to dry in the sun. The longer the wood is left to dry, the higher the quality of the oud produced.
- Extraction-Once the agarwood is harvested and dried, it is crushed into small pieces or chips. These chips are then soaked in water or oil to extract the oud oil. Water distillation is the most common method used to extract oud oil. The chips are placed in a large still with water and heated. As the water boils, steam is created, which carries the oud oil out of the chips and into a condenser. The condenser cools the steam, causing it to condense into a liquid, which is collected and bottled as oud oil.
- Distillation-Another method used to extract oud oil is steam distillation. In this method, the crushed agarwood chips are placed in a still, and steam is passed through them. The steam carries the oud oil out of the chips and into a condenser, where it is cooled and collected. Steam distillation is considered to be a more efficient method of extracting oud oil compared to water distillation.
- Blending-Once the oud oil has been extracted, it can be blended with other ingredients to create a unique oud perfume. Perfumers often blend oud oil with other essential oils, such as sandalwood, rose, or patchouli, to create a complex and layered fragrance.
Creating oud perfume is a complex and time-consuming process, but the result is a highly prized fragrance that is prized for its rich and complex aroma.
Popular oud fragrances in India
India has a long tradition of using oud in perfumery and there are many famous oud perfumes that are popular in India. Here are a few examples:
Billion Casino Royal from Paris Elysees– Billion Dollar Casino Royal fragrance blends spicy, woody, and aromatic notes to create a revitalizing and robust scent. This classic fragrance has been reinvented for the modern man who embraces a more nuanced view of masculinity.
Attar Al Oudh by Rasasi – This is a classic oud fragrance that is highly popular in India. It has a rich and powerful aroma, with notes of oud, amber, and musk.
Night caviar from Paris Elysees – Caviar Night is a fragrance that exudes raw sensuality and leaves a lasting impression. It’s a fragrance that captures the essence of daring and adventure. If you’re looking for a fragrance that will make you stand out and leave a lasting impression, then Caviar Night is the perfect choice for you.
Oudh Al Mithali by Lattafa – This is another popular oud fragrance in India. It has a warm and woody scent, with notes of oud, vanilla, and sandalwood.
Vodka limited edition from Paris Elysees –As you wear this fragrance, the warmth of geranium and coriander intensifies, creating an invigorating and refreshing sensation. This unique blend of scents gives you a revitalizing boost, leaving you feeling refreshed and energized.
Ajmal Oudh Mukhallat – This is a luxurious fragrance that combines the scents of oud with other notes such as rose, musk, and sandalwood.
Arabian Nights by Lomani – This is a popular fragrance that has a rich and intense oud scent, with notes of musk, amber, and sandalwood.
Billion Dollar Night from Paris Elysees -With its alluring blend of woody and fruity notes, this fragrance is simply irresistible. The tantalizing aroma of pineapple, ginger, and tonka beans creates a decadent and sensual allure that’s hard to resist. This fragrance is the ultimate indulgence, enveloping you in a captivating and seductive trap of sensuality.
Raghba by Lattafa – This is a sweet and spicy fragrance that combines oud with notes of vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Al Haramain Oudh Ma’al Attar – This is a high-quality oud fragrance that has a deep and woody scent, with notes of oud, amber, and musk.
These are just a few examples of the many famous oud perfumes that are popular in India. There are many other oud-based fragrances available that cater to different preferences and tastes.
Oud Perfume for Every Occasion
Oud perfumes are versatile and can be worn for a variety of occasions in India. Here are some oud perfumes for every occasion:
Everyday Wear: Attar Al Oudh by Rasasi – This fragrance is a classic oud scent that is suitable for everyday wear. It has a rich and powerful aroma, with notes of oud, amber, and musk.
Formal Events: Arabian Nights by Lomani – This fragrance is perfect for formal events and special occasions. It has a rich and intense oud scent, with notes of musk, amber, and sandalwood.
Festivals: Oudh Al Mithali by Lattafa – This fragrance is perfect for festivals and celebrations. It has a warm and woody scent, with notes of oud, vanilla, and sandalwood.
Weddings: Raghba by Lattafa – This fragrance is perfect for weddings and other formal events. It has a sweet and spicy scent, with notes of vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Work Meetings: Ajmal Oudh Mukhallat – This fragrance is suitable for work meetings and professional settings. It has a luxurious scent that combines oud with notes of rose, musk, and sandalwood.
Romantic Evenings: Al Haramain Oudh Ma’al Attar – This fragrance is perfect for romantic evenings and date nights. It has a deep and woody scent, with notes of oud, amber, and musk.
These are just a few examples of oud perfumes for different occasions in India. There are many other oud-based fragrances available that cater to different preferences and tastes, so it’s important to choose a fragrance that suits your personality and the occasion.
What sets oud apart from other scents?
Oud is unique and highly prized scent in the world of perfumery. Here are some factors that set oud apart from other scents:
Rarity: Oud is a rare and precious scent that comes from the resinous heartwood of the agarwood tree. It is highly valued and can be quite expensive, which makes it a symbol of luxury and exclusivity.
Complexity: Oud has a complex and multi-layered scent profile that can vary depending on the region where it is sourced and the extraction method used. It can have woody, earthy, musky, floral, or spicy notes, which makes it versatile and appealing to a wide range of tastes.
Longevity: Oud has excellent staying power and can last for hours or even days on the skin. This makes it an excellent base note in perfumery, as it can help to anchor other scents and give them depth and longevity.
Cultural significance: Oud has a long history of use in many cultures, including India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. It is often used in religious ceremonies and has a spiritual significance for many people.
Emotional impact: Oud has a powerful and emotive impact on the senses. It can evoke feelings of warmth, comfort, and sensuality, and is often used in perfumes designed for special occasions or romantic settings.
These are just a few of the factors that set oud apart from other scents. Its rarity, complexity, longevity, cultural significance, and emotional impact make it a truly unique and captivating fragrance that has captivated people for centuries.
What are the implications of oud’s rising popularity?
The rising popularity of oud in recent years has several implications for the perfume industry, the environment, and the culture.
Increased demand and price: As more people become interested in oud, there is a higher demand for it, which has led to an increase in price. The cost of oud has risen significantly in recent years due to the limited supply and high demand.
Sustainability concerns: The increasing demand for oud has raised concerns about sustainability. The agarwood tree, which is the source of oud, is rare and endangered, and the traditional methods of harvesting the resin can harm the tree. To meet the growing demand for oud, some companies have turned to synthetic alternatives, while others are working to develop sustainable sourcing methods.
Cultural appropriation: Oud has a long history of use in many cultures, including India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. As it becomes more popular in the West, there are concerns about cultural appropriation and whether the use of oud in Western perfumes is respectful of its cultural origins.
Innovation and creativity: The rising popularity of oud has also sparked innovation and creativity in the perfume industry. Perfumers are experimenting with new ways of using oud and combining it with other scents to create unique and captivating fragrances.
Overall, the rising popularity of oud has both positive and negative implications. While it has led to increased interest and innovation in the perfume industry, it has also raised concerns about sustainability and cultural appropriation. As oud continues to gain popularity, it is important to be mindful of its cultural and environmental significance and work towards sustainable sourcing and respectful use.
The History & Cultural Significance of Oud Perfume
Oud, also known as agarwood or aloeswood, has a rich history and cultural significance that spans centuries and multiple cultures.
The history of oud can be traced back to ancient times when it was highly valued for its medicinal and spiritual properties. In traditional Chinese medicine, oud was used to treat a variety of ailments, including digestive disorders and respiratory problems. In Ayurvedic medicine, oud was used as an aphrodisiac and a tonic for the nervous system.
In addition to its medicinal properties, oud has been used in religious and spiritual ceremonies in many cultures. It is mentioned in the Quran and is an important component of many Islamic rituals. In Hinduism and Buddhism, oud is used as an incense to purify the air and create a sacred atmosphere.
In the world of perfumery, oud has a long and esteemed history. It has been used in fragrances for centuries and is prized for its rich, complex scent. Oud is often used as a base note in perfumes, where it helps to anchor other scents and give them depth and longevity.
In recent years, oud has gained popularity in the West, where it is used in a variety of fragrances and personal care products. While oud is often associated with the Middle East and South Asia, it is also used in Western perfumery, where it has been incorporated into a wide range of fragrances.
The cultural significance of oud is also reflected in the art and literature of many cultures. Oud has been the subject of poems and songs, and is often depicted in paintings and other works of art. In some cultures, oud is considered a symbol of luxury and refinement, and is associated with royalty and nobility.
Thus, the history and cultural significance of oud are complex and multifaceted. From its ancient use in medicine and spirituality to its modern use in perfumery, oud has played an important role in many cultures and continues to be valued for its unique and captivating scent.
Oud in Western Culture
Oud has become increasingly popular in Western culture in recent years. While oud has long been associated with Middle Eastern perfumery and culture, its unique scent and versatility have made it a sought-after ingredient in Western fragrances and personal care products.
One of the reasons for the rising popularity of oud in Western culture is its complex and captivating scent. Oud has a rich, earthy aroma with notes of wood, leather, and spice, which gives it a distinctive and sophisticated character. Its versatility as a fragrance ingredient also allows it to be blended with other scents to create unique and complex fragrances.
In addition to its popularity in perfumery, oud has also made its way into other areas of Western culture. It is used in home fragrances, candles, and skincare products, where its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties make it a popular choice for natural skincare products.
Despite its association with Middle Eastern culture, oud has also become popular among Western celebrities and fashion icons. Many high-end fashion houses and designers have incorporated oud into their fragrances, and oud-inspired fashion and accessories have become popular among trendsetters.
Overall, the rising popularity of oud in Western culture reflects its versatility and unique scent, as well as its ability to bridge cultural divides and bring together diverse traditions and influences. As oud continues to gain popularity, it is likely to continue to play an important role in Western perfumery and culture for years to come.
Oud Perfume vs. Oud Oil: What’s the Difference?
Oud is a fragrant resinous wood that is prized for its rich, complex scent. It is commonly used in perfumery and is available in two main forms: oud perfume and oud oil. While both oud perfume and oud oil contain the same fragrance compound, there are several differences between the two.
Composition: Oud perfume is typically a blend of different fragrance compounds, including oud oil. It may also contain other ingredients such as alcohol, water, and other fragrance oils. Oud oil, on the other hand, is a pure concentration of the fragrant compound extracted from the resinous wood of the agarwood tree.
Intensity: Oud oil is generally more concentrated and potent than oud perfume. It can be applied directly to the skin or mixed with carrier oils to create a personalized fragrance. Oud perfume, on the other hand, is usually less concentrated and is intended to be sprayed on the skin or clothing.
Longevity: Oud oil tends to last longer than oud perfume. Due to its high concentration, a small amount of oud oil can last for several hours or even days. Oud perfume, on the other hand, may need to be reapplied throughout the day to maintain its scent.
Availability: Oud oil is generally more expensive and harder to find than oud perfume. This is because it is a pure extract and requires a significant amount of agarwood to produce. Oud perfume, on the other hand, can be produced using a blend of fragrance oils and is more widely available.
The main difference between oud perfume and oud oil is their concentration and composition. While oud perfume is a blend of fragrance compounds, oud oil is a pure extract of the fragrant compound found in agarwood. Both have their unique benefits and uses, and the choice between the two depends on personal preference and the desired intensity and longevity of the fragrance.